Archive for Food safety

Supermarket Foods containing pestiside residues nearly doubles in decade in UK

I thought this was worth checking out and being aware of…Link is also below. This refers to the UK, but you may like to do your own investigation depending on which country you live in….

‘A massive proportion of our  everyday  food is contaminated with pesticide – with up to 98 per cent  of some  fruits carrying traces of the chemicals.

Almost half of all fresh produce is affected  by increasingly heavy use of the substances, a study of official figures has  revealed.

Overall, the proportion of supermarket foods  with pesticide residues has almost doubled in a decade.

Some 46 per cent of fresh fruit and  vegetables, such as grapes and apples, contained residues, up from 25 per cent  in 2003.

In terms of processed food, residues were  found in almost 97 per cent of flour and 73.6 per cent of bread.

In most cases the traces were below  internationally recognised safety levels, however critics argue many of the  substances are a known risk to human health and warn that the cumulative  ‘cocktail effect’ of even very low levels may be harmful.’ CLIP

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2405078/Up-98-fresh-food-carries-pesticides-Proportion-produce-residues-doubles-decade.html#ixzz2dLYBBNYZ

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Growing Food From Your Scraps

There is nothing like fresh veggies from your own personal garden!Obviously, we all know about the normal ways to grow plants – from seeds.  But, did you know that there are a ton of plants that you can grow from scraps?  Plants, that will in turn, produce more food. Let’s count them out – from 1 to 15…

1, 2, 3, & 4.  Spring Onions, Leeks, Scallions, & Fennel These are the ones I regrow the very most, I always have a mason jar of green onions regrowing above my kitchen sink. The technique is quite simple.  Once you are done with them (any of the above four), simply place the root end in a jar of water & it will begin to regrow within just a few days.  Just make sure to replace the water with fresh as need be.

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5. Lemongrass You can regrow lemongrass the same way you regrow the green onions.  Simply place the root ends in a glass of water, refreshing the water as needed. You will want to wait to harvest your lemongrass until it is about 12 inches tall.

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6.  Ginger Plant a small chunk off of your piece of ginger in potting soil with the newest buds facing up. Ginger enjoys non-direct sunlight in a warm moist environment. Before long, it will begin to regrow shoots and roots. Once the plant is established and you’re ready to harvest, pull up the whole plant, including the roots. Remove a piece of the ginger, and re-plant it to repeat the growing process.

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7. Potatoes  Pick a potato that has a lot of good formed eyes, and cut it into 2-3 inch pieces, taking care to be sure that each piece has at least 1-2 eyes on it. Leave the cut pieces to sit at room temperature for a day or two, which allows the cut areas to dry. Potato plants thrive on a high-nutrient environment, so it is best to flip compost into your soil before you plant. Plant your potato pieces about 8 inches deep with the eye facing up.  Cover it with 4 inches of soil, leaving the other 4 inches empty. As your plant begins to grow and more roots appear, add more soil.

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8. Sweet Potatoes You will need sweet potatoes with good formed eyes, just as you would want with a regular potato. You can bury the entire potato or use pieces under a thin layer of topsoil in a moist place with plenty of sun. When the shoots begin to reach a height of four inches you will need to replant the sweet potatoes, allowing them about 12 inches between each another. It takes about 4-6 months to grow sweet potatoes this way.

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9, 10, 11, & 12.  Romaine Lettuce, Celery, Bok Choy, & Cabbage These all are regrown by placing the roots in a dish of water. Cut the leaves or stalks off to about an inch above the roots.  Place the root end in a dish of water.  Make sure that the roots are inside of the water, but do not submerge the rest of the plant.  Place in a sunny window & spray with water 1-2 times a week to keep the top of the plant moist.

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13.  Onions Onions are one of the easiest vegetables to regrow from scraps. Just cut off the root end of your onion, leaving a 1’2  inch of onion on the roots. Place it in a sunny location in your garden and cover the top with soil. Make sure to keep the soil moist by watering when needed. As you use your home-grown regenerated onions, keep replanting the root ends you cut off, and you’ll never have to purchase onions at the store again.

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14.  Garlic You can re-grow a plant from a single clove.  Simply plant it with the root-end down. Sit the plant in a sunny window.  Once established, cut back the shoots and the plant will put all it’s forces into producing a nice garlic bulb – full of flavor & capable of repelling sparkly vampires.  You can repeat this process with a clove from the new bulb you have just grown.

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15. Pineapple To re-grow pineapples, you will need to remove the green leafy part at the top and take care that no fruit remains attached. Either hold the crown firmly by the leaves and twist the stalk out, or you can cut the top off the pineapple and remove the remaining fruit flesh with a knife. If you do not remove all the fruit parts, it will rot after planting and will likely kill your plant. Carefully slice small, horizontal sections from the bottom of the crown until you see root buds (the small circles on the flat base of the stalk). Remove the bottom few layers of leaves leaving about an inch worth of them at the bottom of the stalk.  Plant your pineapple crown in a warm and well drained environment. Water your plant regularly at first. Once the plant is established, you can cut down to about once a week. You will see growth in the first few months but it will take about 2-3 years before you are able to harvest.

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Source:

http://www.mrshappyhomemaker.com

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A Polish Secret : Raspberry Cordial

I once worked with a lovely Polish lady called Maya. She grew up and lived in Poland under what was then the Russian state control, and her story of growing up and living in that system was fascinating. Many things that we take for granted with our supermarket and shop cultures today were unavailable to them then, and one particular thing she told me about stuck with me.

She was a great advocate of raspberry syrup, which they made themselves as a home-made medicine for a fantastic range of ailments. It was probably THE thing to have at all times at home in the  family”medicine chest”. I know that it is still renowned by the Polish because even the local supermarkets like Tesco here stock it on their Polish foods shelves. But it is easy to make and quite fun too and has a shelf life of two years, so below I shall put the recipe. You will need bottles with proper stoppers to seal it, these can be bought in various sizes from mail order companies supplying home cookware. Here in the UK I use a company called Lakeland for pretty much all my requirements. Of course being glass, they are reusable. I know that raspberry leaves are also used in traditional medicines but since my knowledge of this is very limited, I do intend to cover that here. Any search of the internet will soon yield results if that interests you. The raspberry syrup can be diluted for a refreshing drink, as can the blackcurrant which I also will give details for. We all know how high the vitamin C content in blackcurrant is. Later in the year [Autumn], I will give detail as to how to make rosehip syrup, so high in Vitamin C that children during the war were given days of school where they were expected to harvest rosehips for the nation’s health. Now they still grow in the hedgerows and are a much unused and under-valued free commodity.  Certainly as a child we were given a spoonful of rosehip syrup daily as our vitamin C boost [along with cod liver oil and malt extract before going to school]. I have made rosehip syrup for the past few years as I believe it, combined with vitamin D to be a very effective barrier to these horrid flu’s that pass round the world. Who knows…but its served me well so far anyway!

Before you start always remember that you bottles must be sterilised before use, either a quick cycle in the dishwasher or a hot wash and dry them in a low oven will do it. [Same is true for jam jars, preserving jars…]

Raspberry Syrup.

Raspberry syrup

You will need:

1 kg raspberries

75 ml water

Preserving or granulated sugar.

Put the raspberries and water in your bowl and mash well. Set over a pan of boiling water for 1 hour, mashing occasionally.

Pour into a sterilized jelly bag and leave for a few hours until the dripping has ceased. Squeeze the bag and then filter the juice through a double layer of muslin.

Measure your juice and allow 400 grams of sugar for every 500 ml of juice. Now put juice and sugar into pan and boil stirring until all the sugar is dissolved. Skim off any froth and boil hard for 4-5 minutes. Do not overcook though as mixture will start to set!

Pour into hot sterilized bottle and cork, or place stopper in. Leave to cool and cover cork with wax if you wish.

This amount will give about 750 ml of syrup. It can be diluted to drink, or poured over ice cream, and deserts.

Blackcurrant Syrup.

Blackcurrant syrup

You will need:

1 kg ripe blackcurrants

Preserving or granulated sugar.

Puree the blackcurrants in a food processor or liquidiser. Transfer to a bowl, cover, and leave for 24 hours.

Pour the puree into sterilised jelly bag and leave for a few hours until dripping ceases. Squeeze the bag, then filter juice through double layer of muslin.

Measure juice and add 400 grams sugar for every 500 grams of juice. Stir well until sugar has dissolved.

Pour juice into sterilised bottles, filling them to within 5 cm of the top. Cork. Wrap in cloth and stand on metal rack at base of large lidded pan. Pour in enough water to cover cork by 2.5 cm. Cover, bring to the boil and allow to boil for 25 minutes if using a 500 ml bottle. Remove from pan with tongs, leave to cool completely. Wax if desired.

As the blackcurrant syrup requires heat processing, it may pay you to make up several batches of this at same time, so they can all be popped into hot bath at same time for processing.

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For Like Minded Squirrells

At this time of the year I am getting into preserving, and this year intend to do more what we call  bottling in the UK, and the Americans call Canning. I have just done some bottled apricots. Bottling is an amazing method of preservation which does not rely on using electricity for storage as a freezer does. I think this is one of its strongest points, I certainly feel we all need to become more aware of the fragility of the systems such as electricity that we take for granted. Another bonus is the beauty of those bottles of different colours and contents stacked up on our shelves and the feeling that we can feed our families a variety of foods throughout the year and in emergencies. Since the glass jars used for preserving are reusable it is an environmentally friendly way of being a squirrel! For like-minded squirrels, this book which I have detailed below looks like a dream. I have just pre-ordered it, it is due to be released 1st July. I have given you the UK link, to find it on American Amazon, just copy and paste the title and put it in search on your own Amazon. Cant wait for mine to come through!
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From the author of “The Homestyle Amish Kitchen Cookbook” comes a great new collection of recipes, hints, and Plain wisdom for everyone who loves the idea of preserving fresh, wholesome foods. Whether instructing a beginning canner or helping a seasoned cook hone her skills, certified Master Food Preserver Georgia Varozza shows people how to get the very best out of their food. Here, readers will find: a short history of canning; lists of all the tools and supplies needed to get started; basic instructions for safe canning; recipes for canning fruit, vegetables, meat, soups, sauces, and more; and guidelines for adapting recipes to fit personal tastes. With its expert advice and warm tones, “The Amish Canning Cookbook” will become a beloved companion to those who love the tradition, frugality, and homestyle flavor of Amish cooking!
Amish Preserving Book

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“Dig For Survival” says Farming Minister

Families have been told they will have to  grow more of their own fruit and vegetables to cope with food  shortages.

Farming minister David Heath recast the  famous World War Two slogan urging Brits to ‘dig for victory’ with a stark  warning of the need to ‘dig for survival’ in the future. New figures today showed fruit prices are  more than 10 per cent higher than last year with vegetable costs up 6.7 per  cent. Mr Heath warned Britain could not rely on  cheap imports to meet its food needs.

Disruption to the food chain triggered by  disease, conflict or bad weather hitting harvests would drive prices even  higher. Britain is on the verge of running out of  wheat after a year of terrible wet weather, with more than 2million tonnes lost  in last summer’s deluge. Farming minister David Heath said Britain could not rely  on cheap foreign imports. Farmers have also struggled to sow crops  for  the 2013 harvest, which is already predicted to be 25 per cent down  on  potential production. Households will have to consider  becoming more  self-sufficient to limit the impact of high costs and bare shelves, Mr Heath  warned.

He said: ‘With an increasing population,  increasing demand not just in  this country but across the world, we are going  to have to increase food production. ‘We made a huge mistake a few years ago when  the idea got around that we didn’t need to produce in the agricultural sector  any more, that we would be able to buy our way through whatever was necessary to  feed the country. ‘Once we used to “dig for victory”. There may  come a time soon when we need to “dig for survival”.’

New inflation figures published today show  how food prices have impacted on the cost of living. While the headline Consumer Prices Index  figure remained unchanged on 2.8 per cent, a detailed breakdown showed how food  costs have leapt in the last year.

In March 2013, fruit prices were 10.8 per  cent higher than in the same month last year while vegetables were up 6.7 per  cent.

Bread and cereals have risen by 3.6 per cent,  meat 2.4 per cent and items like sugar, jam and chocolate were 4.1 per cent  year-on-year.

Mr Heath told the Daily Telegraph that that  the idea of the public ‘digging for survival’ was ‘not overstating it by a  lot’.

He added: ‘We need to be able to produce  enough to deal with the requirements in this country. Food security is going to  be an issue of increasing relevance.

‘There is nothing that provides more  classical insecurity across the world than not being able to feed populations  adequately so we need to be aware of that and we need to respond to  it.’

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2309840/Dig-survival-Farming-minister-David-Heath-urges-families-grow-cope-food-shortage-crisis.html#ixzz2QhnbPqh7

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GM Issues: UK

Marks & Spencer, Sainsbury’s and the Co-op yesterday ended bans on giving ‘Frankenstein Feed’ to farm animals producing meat, milk and eggs.The three retailers were the last of the big food chains to be holding out against the use of controversial GM crops on their farms.

The change means that the vast majority of meat, milk and eggs sold by Britain’s supermarkets will come from animals raised on a GM diet. Alarmingly, none of these products will be labelled as coming from GM-fed animals in what critics call a disaster for consumer choice.

GM crop farming has been shown to harm bees, butterflies and other insects in UK trials and on farms across the US, where many have become blighted with superweeds.

In 2011, a team of doctors in Canada found that toxins implanted into GM food crops to kill pests were reaching the bloodstreams of women and unborn babies. Yesterday the Mail revealed that Tesco is ending its ban on the use of GM soya for chickens producing meat and eggs.
Along with most other retailers, Tesco already allows GM feed to be given to other farm animals. The stores claim the reason for the U-turn is not a sudden conversion to GM, but rather they and farmers are finding it increasingly difficult to find supplies that are non-GM.

Biotech firms such as Monsanto have ensured that 80 per cent of the soya grown in the US and Brazil is genetically modified.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2308369/Sainsburys-M-S-tear-Frankenfeed-ban.html#ixzz2QKVKIlrn
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Grandads Garden: March

Our apologies for this post being a little late, we lost our dear companion cat, Pushkin on the 2nd March and after having her with us for 9 years, after she walked into our lives and made herself comfortable, we find ourselves missing her rather dreadfully. Anyway-here is the “to do’s” for March and we hope you enjoy. Here is “The Lady” Pushkin…photo taken a few years ago.

 

 

Pushkin  for canvas print

“March winds and April showers, Bring forth the May flowers.”

That was a peace-time couplet. “Not yet must the flowers invade the fat green hinterland of the war-time allotment”, A Northern newspaper recently declared. As it pointed out, fresh allotment produce––garden stuff, too––is going to be of immense value during the first few years after the war, when there will be a great strain upon road, rail and all transport. The man who can grow his own produce on his own plot will not only be making an important contribution to a smooth transition from war to peace, but will also be looking after his own family interests best.

The Ministry does not rule out flowers altogether. As the Northern newspaper happily put it: “Now and again an allotment holder will disinterestedly set himself to cheer us all up by bedding out––in true peace-time parkland style––with lobelias, geraniums, pansies––just a happy fringe of them along the hem of his plot.” The Ministry itself has said, in effect, that not more than one- tenth of peace-time flowers should be grown, but the paper puts it better with its phrase “just a happy fringe”, adding “But behind this gay facade wholesome produce grows in abundance”.

And March is the month when gardeners really begin to get busy putting their plans into effect and starting work to produce this wholesome abundance. Now, abundance in summer is easy, but sufficiency in winter––especially late winter and early spring––is another kettle of fish. Too many gardeners still fall down on winter production, due to lack of planning. Your local Parks Superintendent or your local allotment or horticultural society may have produced a plan that suits local conditions and makes adequate provision for winter vegetables. Or you can still get the Ministry’s cropping plan, not to follow it blindly, but to use it as a guide that you can adapt to meet your family’s likes and dislikes and modify in the light of your knowledge of the kinds of vegetables that can be grown satisfactorily in your neighbourhood. And it may be worth your while re-reading what was said in the February issue of this “Guide” about the importance of crop rotation.

Any week now, when weather and soil are right, you will want to start sowing and planting. But one word of warning: don’t try to sow seed when the soil sticks to your boots. Wait for a fine spell. When it is fine and the soil is workable, you will perhaps be making successional sowings of broad beans and spinach as described in the February “Guide”. You will also be sowing seeds of Brussels sprouts and leeks––both in a special seedbed; parsnips, peas, onions, lettuces, radishes and parsley––where they are to grow on. And you may also be planting autumn-sown onions.

But before getting down to detailed advice on sowing and planting, here are a few brief reminders that may not come amiss.

UPROOT THOSE STUMPS Clear away those old stumps of Brussels, cabbage and so on and get the land prepared for another crop.

SEEDS You have no doubt already got the seeds of the vegetables just mentioned––also your seed potatoes, which should have been “sprouted”; but during April and May you may be sowing beet, carrots and turnips, as well as runner beans (perhaps French and Haricots too), kales, savoys, cabbages and spinach beet. Marrows must not be overlooked either, if your family likes them. Make sure you get all the seeds in time.

FERTILISER You have probably got a supply of a suitable fertiliser containing the three necessary plant foods––nitrogen, potash, phosphorus–– with which to dress your land before sowing and planting. If you haven’t, “National Growmore Fertiliser”––a Government recommended product– – would suit your needs. 42 lb. will be enough for a 300 square yard plot. The January “Guide” described how to use it.

STICKS AND STAKES In April you will be sticking your peas, in June your runners. If you intend to grow tomatoes, you will need stakes for them at the end of May when you plant out. Have you got your sticks and stakes or ordered them?

FEED SPRING CABBAGE In the January “Guide” it was recommended that out of the 42 lb. of “National Growmore Fertiliser” that you might buy, you should set aside 2 lb. as a top dressing for spring cabbage. Or you can use sulphate of ammonia, applying it at the rate of one ounce per yard run. Lettuces and spinach would also benefit by a similar application. But keep the fertiliser off the leaves.

LIFT LEEKS If you grew leeks last season and need the land on which they stand, for other crops, lift the remaining plants and heel them in in a shady spot. In any case, it is not wise to leave leeks too long in their rows.

GETTING THE “ROOT” GROUND READY As soon as it becomes free, dig over the land you intend for your root crops. Leave it rough until you are ready to sow. In April you can break it down and lightly fork in a dressing of 1 lb. of “National Growmore Fertiliser” to every 10 square yards.

Now for SOWING & PLANTING

Some seeds are best sown in a seedbed––for instance cabbage, kales, sprouts, sprouting broccoli and leeks; others, such as the root crops and lettuces are usually sown where they are to remain. As you may be sowing Brussels sprouts and leeks during March, let us first say something about

How to use a SEEDBED

Here are the essential points:––

Mark off a patch about 6 ft. by 4 ft. for a 200 square yard allotment or garden. Break down all lumps during a dry spell and remove any stones and all roots of grass or weeds.

> Make the soil firm by treading it as soon as it is dry enough not to stick to your boots. Don’t stamp it down.

> Loosen top surface by lightly raking. Place short sticks to mark ends of rows, which should be 4 ft. long across the bed and 6 in. apart. Stretch line between sticks.

> Stand on a board so as not to tread ground too hard, and make shallow drill along line with label or stick.

> Sow an even single line of seed along bottom of drill. Cover seed lightly with soil. A good way is to shuffle slowly along with a foot on either side of the drill, and without raising the feet slide the soil back and lightly press it. On heavy soil you may find it easier to scatter fine soil into the drill instead. Rake lightly to finish.

Here are two March items for the seedbed:––

BRUSSELS SPROUTS A small packet of seed is enough for each of the cabbage family. Seed may be sown in seedbed drills about 1-1⁄2in. deep––1 ft. apart––from third week in March to end of April. Sow thinly, allowing 1⁄8in. between each seed. To protect seedlings from birds use black cotton or wire guards and do it immediately after sowing.

LEEKS Sow thinly in mid-March in shallow seedbed drills.

Here are several items for sowing in March on the actual site where the crops will grow:––

PARSNIPS May be sown from mid-February to mid-March. The Ministry’s cropping plan (300 square yards) provides for three rows. Soil for parsnips should always be deeply dug and worked to a fine surface tilth before sowing. Sow in drills 15 in. apart and 1 in. deep, dropping the seed in small clusters of three or four, 6 in. apart. Thin seedlings of each cluster so as to leave only one.

PEAS The Ministry’s plan provides for three rows of dwarf peas 2 ft. 6 in. apart. In view of the difficulty of getting pea sticks, dwarf and medium varieties are most suitable for the garden or allotment, since they can be supported by fewer sticks or by string stretched between short sticks inserted at intervals either side of the row.

If mice are troublesome, before sowing shake the seed in a tin containing a little red lead or paraffin.

NEVER SOW PEAS IN WET SOIL Wait until it is just nicely moist and works freely. Sow in broad, flat drills from 2 to 2-1⁄2in. deep, made with either draw-hoe or spade.

Don’t just scatter the seeds slapdash in the drill: set them out in three rows (as illustrated) allowing about 3 in. each way between seeds. This may sound unnecessarily finicky, but it is worth it and the job takes only a few extra minutes.

Space the rows according to the height of variety, 2 ft. for dwarfs, 3 ft. for medium and 5 ft. for tall.

Birds will attack the germinating seeds as they come up, so protect the rows with black cotton stretched on sticks about 6 in. about soil. Or you can use pea guards.

LETTUCE (Summer). Begin in March to sow very thinly in drills, half a row at a time, 1⁄2in. deep, the rows being 1 ft. apart. Continue to sow at fortnightly intervals until July. March-sown lettuces attract slugs, so line the surface as a deterrent.

Thin the seedlings when the first pairs of true leaves are well formed. The final distance apart should be from 9 to 12 in.

RADISHES If you like radishes, you can make a small sowing in March (1⁄2in. deep) and follow up with sowings about every three weeks until May, to keep up a continuous supply.

PARSLEY Make a sowing of parsley in March (1⁄2in. deep) and a second sowing in July for succession. Thin seedlings to 3 to 4 in. apart.

ONIONS The Ministry’s cropping plan provides for eight rows of onions. There are three ways of growing them for storage:––

(1) by sowing seed under glass or in warm frames in January and February, and transplanting

in April;

(2) by sowing seed in the open in February or March;

(3) by sowing in early autumn and transplanting in March.

By sowing in boxes, seed can be made to yield the maximum number of plants. The second method is popular and can be freely practised almost anywhere; but where soils are difficult to work or onion fly is troublesome, the other methods are recommended.

The onion bed must always be carefully prepared whatever method you use. Soil should have been dug early (before Christmas) and manured liberally. Firmness of soil is essential.

Early sowing is also important, and the bed should be prepared as soon as soil is dry enough to work in February or March, that is, when it does not stick to the boots. Tread it both ways and rake level, removing all large stones. The seed drills should be drawn 9 to 12 in. apart and about 1 in. deep. Sow seed fairly thinly and evenly and cover it with earth with the feet or back of rake. The soil requires to be gently consolidated by another light treading or by using a light roller.

Onion seed is rather fickle; it may germinate well or badly, and quickly or slowly according to weather conditions; but 1 oz. of seed should be sufficient for at least 100 feet. As a rule, it takes about three weeks to come up. It is a good plan to mix with it a little radish seed; this will germinate quickly and mark the rows, making it possible to cultivate and weed between them before the slower germinating onions com through, when the radishes can be pulled for salad. Autumn-sown onions should be transplanted in early March on to the prepared onion bed. Plant (see illustration) in rows 1 ft. apart with about 6 in. between plants (for large onions).

This POTATO business

Throughout the war the Ministry has been consistent in its advice that the household grower should not overdo potatoes (as many are apt to do), that he should not aim at self-sufficiency in this crop unless he has enough ground to allow him first to grow green crops––salads summer vegetables and, above all, enough winter greens and root crops for his family. “Follow the official cropping plant” has all along been the advice given. And that plan provides for three 30 ft. rows of “earlies” and six 30 ft. rows of main crops for a 300 square yard plot. On plots half that size or less the Ministry considers it would be unwise to use any of the space for main crop potatoes, though two rows of “earlies” might be grown. The limited room in small gardens would be better used for growing green winter vegetables.

PLANTING EARLY POTATOES

If possible, all potato planters––great and small––should “sprout” their seed potatoes before planting, as advised in the previous issues of this “Guide”. In any year it is a useful thing to do before planting, because it makes for a larger yield and brings the crop to maturity some weeks earlier.

If you have sprouted your seed potatoes, there is no need to be in a hurry about planting them out. Wait for favourable conditions. With unsprouted seed, however, it is important that the first sprouts, which are the most vigorous, should be formed in the soil rather than in the bag, for this will reduce the risk of damage in handling.

This means early planting. A simple way of planting is to take out shallow trenches 2 ft. apart and 4-5 in. deep on heavy soil, and about 6 in. on light land. The distance between the tubers in the row ought to be not less than 12 in. (15 in. for maincrops).

Heavier crops will be secured by using fertilisers. For gardens and allotments “National Growmore” fertiliser is most convenient. It contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potash––the three important plant foods. The method is to give a dressing of 1 lb. per 10 sq. yards, forked in before planting. Also sow in the drills before planting a light dressing at the rate of 1 lb. per 60 ft. Tubers should not be dusted with artificials, as the eye or sprout may be damaged.

Don’t apply lime to cultivated soil in the same season in which it is proposed to crop it with potatoes.

FOOD FOR YOUR GARDEN FROM YOUR GARDEN

The importance of compost was dealt with in the January “Guide”. Now it is proposed to tell you what you can use to make it and how to make it.

WHAT YOU CAN USE Leaves, grass cuttings, straw sods, lawn mowings, haulms of peas, beans and potatoes, vegetable tops, hedge clippings, weeds, and faded flowers. In fact, any plant refuse not needed for stock feeding.

WHAT YOU CAN’T USE Cinders, paper, coal ashes, thick woody stems, sawdust, and any materials tainted with oil, creosote, tar or with any poisonous chemical. Avoid cabbage roots affected by ‘club-root’ disease.

Make a COMPOST HEAP this way

1. Choose site, in shade if possible, on ground not used for cropping. Width 4-7 ft. Length

depends on amount of material available.

2. Cover with layer of vegetable refuse (the more mixed and broken up the better) to 6-9 in.

depth. If dry, moisten and read down well. If green and sappy, lay loosely.

3. (Left) Cover with 2 in. layer of animal manure (horse, cow, pig, poultry, pigeon, rabbit) or sewage sludge. (Right) If animal manure is not available, sprinkle with one of the special proprietary chemicals or with sulphate of ammonia.

4. Repeat layers 2 and 3 until heap is 3-5 ft. high. If more material is to be dealt with, start a

new heap.

5. Sprinkle a little lime, ground limestone or chalk, after every foot or so, or apply layer of

chalky soil about 2 in. thick. But if using chemicals, follow maker’s directions about lime.

6. When heap has cooled down, turn it over from one end to the other, so that the outside

material goes to the middle and that from the middle to the outside.

Things to do in the FRUIT GARDEN

Fruit trees benefit by a spring application of 1 oz. of sulphate of ammonia per square yard, worked into the surface soil in spring. And if you are having garden bonfires in March, don’t forget to keep the wood ash in a dry place. Apples and pears need the potash the wood ash contains, so work the ask into the soil in April. Plum trees, too, benefit from a dressing of 2 oz. of sulphate of ammonia to the square yard in spring.

Early in April you may have to spray your black-currants if they are troubled with “big bud”. Lime sulphur is the spray for this and you can get it ready made up with full directions for use.

Gooseberries also should be sprayed in April with lime sulphur, to ward off mildew before the flowers appear.

Apples (except “Beauty of Bath,” “Stirling Castle” and St. Cecilia” may be sprayed with lime sulphur while still in the green bud stage, that is, when the green glower buds are visible but have not begun to turn colour. This treatment will protect against “scab,” but should be repeated during April when the trees are at the “pink bud” stage, that is, before the flower buds begin to open, but after they have begun to show colour.

Man digging garden

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